Стволовой пессарий, 1880-е

Винтажные контрацептивы

Предупреждение: Не используйте перечисленные в статье меры контрацепции. Проконсультируйтесь со своим врачом для подбора подходящего Вам метода.

Контрацепция, предохранение, планирование семьи — не ново.

Древние египтяне использовали смесь из листьев акации, меда и корпии для блокировки попадания спермы. В Древней Греции, популярным средством контрацепции было растение силфиум.

Некоторые приспособления, которые будут описаны в этой статье — это пессарии — такие штуки, которые блокируют шейку матки. Это тоже древний метод контрацепции —  в некоторых культурах использовали вощанку (промасленную бумагу), свернутую в конус, или половинку лимона.

До 1900-ых презервативы уже существовали, но не были распространены. Итальянский Казанова писал об использовании презерватива из овечьей шкуры. В Викторианский период предохранение и распространение литературы было незаконным.

Но в 1920-х, британская активистка Мари Стопес преодолела социальный барьер и показала предохранение от нежелательной беременности с точки зрения медицины нежли с точки зрения морали. Стопес открыла одну из первых гинекологических клиник и консультировала по вопросам материнства и, в основном, рассказывала и показывала, как пользоваться цервикальным колпачком.

В 1937, в Америке провели исследование, и оно показало ошеломляющий результат — 71 % респондентов выступили за контрацепцию. До сих пор было незаконно рекламировать гинекологические клиники, которые после этого стали расти как грибы.

В конце 1950-х, результатом многочисленных химических исследований и тестов стали потенциальные таблетки для контрацепции, и в 1960-х Управление по контролю за продуктами и лекарствами США одобрило их применение.

Если верить обложке TIME 1967 года, оральные контрацептивы были революцией в мире медицины и в растущем мире феминизма и борьбы за равноправие женщин.

1-vintage-contraceptives

 

Рим, 200 г.до н.э. — 400 г. н.э.
Бронзовый пессарий (маточное кольцо) — средство для блокировки шейки матки. В дырочку в центре пессария вставляли палочку, которая удерживала его на месте. Несложно догадаться, что такая связь была весьма болезненной.

Казанова1754
Жан-Жак Казанова слева) (1725 — 1798) итальянский соблазнитель и аферист надувает презерватив

1880 Этот вид золотого стволового пессария с интрацервикальной вилочкой пришел в обиход ближее концы пессария устанавливали на вагинальные стенки, а ствол пессария выступал в матку через шейку.  Внутрицервикальное устройство действовало после оплодотворения. Его вставляли в матку и оно раскрывалось и уничтожало только что оплодотворенный эмбрион. Такие приспособления продержались недолго из-за высокой смертности в результате инфекций и воспалений.

1880-е
Этот вид золотого стволового пессария с интрацервикальной вилочкой пришел в обиход ближее концы пессария устанавливали на вагинальные стенки, а ствол пессария выступал в матку через шейку. Внутрицервикальное устройство действовало после оплодотворения. Его вставляли в матку и оно раскрывалось и уничтожало только что оплодотворенный эмбрион. Такие приспособления продержались недолго из-за высокой смертности в результате инфекций и воспалений.

1910-е Контрацептивный спонж. Такие штуки стали популярны в 1910-х.  Делали их из резины,  и по сути они просто закупоривали шейку, чтобы в нее ничего не попало. Такой метод пропагандировался клиникой Мари Стопес. В оригинале спонж выпускали в алюминиевой коробке в Великобритании компанией Elarco.

1910-е
Контрацептивный спонж. Такие штуки стали популярны в 1910-х. Делали их из резины, и по сути они просто закупоривали шейку, чтобы в нее ничего не попало. Такой метод пропагандировался клиникой Мари Стопес. В оригинале спонж выпускали в алюминиевой коробке в Великобритании компанией Elarco.

1910-е Этот презерватив сделан из кишечной плевы животного (слепая кишка). Такие презервативы были очень эффективными от нежелательной беременности, но они не защищали от половых инфекций, таких как СПИД. Этот презерватив придумал Джон Белл / John Bell и Кройден Лимитед / Croyden Limited.

1910-е
Этот презерватив сделан из кишечной плевы животного (слепая кишка). Такие презервативы были очень эффективными от нежелательной беременности, но они не защищали от половых инфекций, таких как СПИД. Этот презерватив придумал Джон Белл / John Bell и Кройден Лимитед / Croyden Limited.

1920-е Бренд контрацептивов Prorace был основан Марией Стопес и распространялся ее же клиникой Материнства. Эти пессарии содержали спермицид, который убивал сперматозоиды. Их можно было использовать как самостоятельный контрацептив, так и вместе с другими контрацептивами, например, с цервикальным колпачком. Такие пессарии выпускали  John Bell и Croyden Limited. Название торгойвой марки - Prorace относят к увлеченности Стопес евгеникой.  Это широкораспространенное в ранних 1900-х учение пропагандировало селективный генетический отбор, который бы избавил общество от нежелательных его членов.

1920-е
Бренд контрацептивов Prorace был основан Марией Стопес и распространялся ее же клиникой Материнства. Эти пессарии содержали спермицид, который убивал сперматозоиды. Их можно было использовать как самостоятельный контрацептив, так и вместе с другими контрацептивами, например, с цервикальным колпачком. Такие пессарии выпускали John Bell и Croyden Limited. Название торгойвой марки — Prorace относят к увлеченности Стопес евгеникой. Это широко распространенное в ранних 1900-х учение пропагандировало селективный генетический отбор, который бы избавил общество от нежелательных его членов.

Цервикальный колпачок Prorace

Цервикальный колпачок Prorace

Резиновый предохраняющий колпачок. Контрацептивные колпачки, также называли цервикальными, предохраняющими или противозачаточным колпачком. Это барьерный метод контрацепции.  Колпачок надевали на шейку матки, и он препятствовал попаданию спермы в шейку. Бренд Racial основала Мари Стопес, и также считается, что такое название пришло Мари от ее веры в евгенику.

Резиновый предохраняющий колпачок. Контрацептивные колпачки, также называли цервикальными, предохраняющими или противозачаточным колпачком. Это барьерный метод контрацепции. Колпачок надевали на шейку матки, и он препятствовал попаданию спермы в шейку. Бренд Racial основала Мари Стопес, и также считается, что такое название пришло Мари от ее веры в евгенику

1920-е  Стволовые пессарии - это внутриматочные средства контрацепции. Они состояли из резинового, стекляннного или металлического ствола, прикрепленного к колпачку, чтобы предотвратить попадание спермы и потом иметь возможность извлечь его из матки. Конкретно этот экземпляр сделан из стекла. До сих пор используют такие виды пессариев, только их делают из пластика и меди.

1920-е
Стволовые пессарии — это внутриматочные средства контрацепции. Они состояли из резинового, стекляннного или металлического ствола, прикрепленного к колпачку, чтобы предотвратить попадание спермы и потом иметь возможность извлечь его из матки. Конкретно этот экземпляр сделан из стекла. До сих пор используют такие виды пессариев, только их делают из пластика и меди.

Вторая половина 1920-х Этот алюминиевый стволовой пессарий был сделан немецкой компанией Rauch. Благодаря стволу пессарий удерживался на месте.

Вторая половина 1920-х
Этот алюминиевый стволовой пессарий был сделан немецкой компанией Rauch. Благодаря стволу пессарий удерживался на месте.

c. 1925 Stem pessaries are intrauterine devices (IUDs). They were a common gynecological treatment in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They were also used as a contraceptive. This early intrauterine stem pessary consists of catgut loop and bone. The stem held the larger block in place.

1925
Внутриматочный пессарий из кости и кишечной струны (петля)

12-vintage-contraceptives

1920-е
Немецкий гинеколог Эрнст Графенберг изобрел вот такое внутриматочное устройство, которое стало довольно популярным. Первые экземпляры были сделаны из фиброина шелкопряда и серебряной застежки. Действие такого контрацептива было основано на уничтожении только что оплодотворенного эмбриона.

13-vintage-contraceptives

1935
Тестирование презервативов

c. 1965 Oral contraceptive pills being manufactured at a factory in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, England.

1965
Производство оральных контрацептивов в Англии.

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