Вирус Эбола

Вирус Эбола: Чума 21 века (Фото 18+)

Первая вспышка вируса Эбола была зарегистрирована в 1976 году в Африке недалеко от реки Эбола, благодаря которой получил свое название. После этого случалось еще порядка 16-18 вспышек, но текущая – самая крупная и принимает масштабы эпидемии. Если до этого летальных исходов было зафиксировано не больше 300 за все время, то эта вспышка унесла жизни уже более 4000 человек, а инфицировано уже более 8500. Очаг эпидемии – Западная Африка. Но 30 сентября этого года был зафиксирован первый случай заболевания Эбола в США, кроме того , еще 2 случая – в России (инфицированы в ходе лаораторных испытаний).
К симптомам вируса Эбола относят высокую температуру (более 38,6 градусов Цельсия), сильные головные боли, мышечные боли, слабость, диарею, рвоту, боль в животе, боль в горле, сыпь и необъяснимые кровотечения, например, из десен или в кале.Симптомы проявляются в среднем на 8-10 день после заражения. То есть больше недели человек ходит и просто не подозревает, что он заражен смертельным вирусом.
Первоначально вирус Эбола был передан человеку от инфицированного животного. Хозяйским организмом для Эбола стали летучие мыши, ему также подвергаются другие млекопитающие животные, такие как мартышки и обезьяны. Человек может заразиться от животного через контакт нарушенными кожными покровами или слизистыми оболочками с инфицированным животным.
От человека к человеку вирус передается посредством контакта слизистых и открытых ран с любыми жидкостями тела инфицированного человека (слюна, кровь, сперма, слеза, моча, экскременты и т.д.), через иголки или шприцы.
Эбола не передается по воздуху или воду или , в общем, через еду. Кроме того, нет никакх подтверждений, что москиты и другие насекомые могут быть переносчиками Эбола вируса. Только млекопитающие показали способность к заражению вирусом Эбола.
В наибольшей зоне риска, конечно, находятся медики, которым приходится ухаживать за инфицированными. А наибольшие зоны риска – это медицинские учреждения, в которых проходит лечение таких больных. Особенно в Африке, где уровень жизни очень низкий и, вероятнее всего, в больницах может не хватать защитной одежды (масок, халатов), где могут пренебречь однорозовостью инструментов. Просто в виду нехватке таких. Этого, конечно, делать нельзя ни при каких условиях.
Зарегистрированной, протестированной и эффективной вакцины от Эбола еще не найдено. Основными факторами, которые могут помочь излечиться являются: надлежащий медицинский уход и лечение, своевременное оказание первой помощи, сильный иммунитет человека. Если человеку удается излечиться от Эбола, то у него в организме выбаратываются антитела, которые живут в нем еще порядка 10 лет, и он не может им ни заразиться в течение этого времени, ни заразить кого-либо. Но, надо заметить, что вирус Эбола даже после излечения больного, продолжает жить в сперме еще около 3х месяцев, поэтому стоит воздерживаться от секса или заниматься им в презервативах еще в течение трех месяцев. Если кто-то излечивается от Эбола, то он долго не сможет быть переносчиком вируса.

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26 thoughts on “Вирус Эбола: Чума 21 века (Фото 18+)

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